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Articulation: approaches target each sound deviation and are often selected by the clinician when the child's errors are assumed to be motor based; the aim is correct production of the target sound(s). There are different types of articulation errors. Your child may have only one type of error or a combination of errors. The main errors include:

  • Substitutions → Replacing one sound with another (e.g. “wed” for “red”)

  • Deletions → Deleting a sound in a word (e.g. “geen” for “green”)

  • Distortions → Saying a sound in an unfamiliar way (e.g. “sthun” for “sun”)

  • Additions → Adding an extra sound into a word (e.g. “dog-uh” for “dog”)

Phonology: target a group of sounds with similar error patterns, although the actual treatment of exemplars of the error pattern may target individual sounds. Phonological approaches are often selected in an effort to help the child internalize phonological rules and generalize these rules to other sounds within the pattern (e.g., final consonant deletion, cluster reduction). Phonological processes may include but not limited to:

  • Fronting → saying "tookie" for "cookie"

  • Backing → saying "gog" for "dog"


Children who stutter may have the following types of dysfluencies:

  • Blocks:This happens when you have a hard time getting a word out. You may pause for a long time or not be able to make a sound. For example, "I want a ...... cookie."

  • Prolongations: You may stretch a sound out for a long time, like cooooooooooookie.

  • Repetitions: You may repeat parts of words, like co-co-co-cookie.

Speech therapist Ms. Tareva Ruffin
Therapy session in daycare
Speech and Language skills targeted through play
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